Electromyography (EMG) and Electroneurography (ENG)
EMG and ENG are studies which aim is to check the activity of peripheral muscles and nerves. They are most often performed when suspecting a disease process or damage to the peripheral nerves and / or muscles.
ENG, or the nerve conduction test, assesses the activity of nerves based on the measurement of responses to controlled electrical stimuli.
EMG, or needle-based muscle examination, involves assessing the muscle response to an electric stimulus delivered to the muscle with a special disposable needle electrode (punctured into the muscle).
These tests can be painful, but most people tolerate them well. Sometimes, also after the examination, you can feel a small pain at the site of the test, usually rapidly passing. The duration of the examination depends on its scope and can range from 10 to 60 minutes.
The examination is necessary in the diagnostics of the following diseases:
- diseases of the neuromuscular junction: (myasthenia gravis, myasthenic syndrome),
- multiple nerve injuries of various etiology: (diabetic polyneuropathy, toxic and inflammatory, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, CIDP),
- damage to individual peripheral nerves due to pressure or trauma: (carpal tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, damage to nerve plexuses, damage to the shoulder plexus, dhamage to the lumbosacral plexus),
- damage to motor motoneuron (SLA, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis),
- neuromuscular hyperactivity disorder (tetanus),
- multi-muscle lesions of various etiologies: (toxic, e.g. drug-induced; metabolic e.g. in hypothyroidism; inflammatory which is genetically determined),
- damage to individual muscles due to injuries,
- cervical radiculopathy,
- lumbar-sacral (brachialgia, sciatica), especially with the presence of severe pain and loss condition,
- assessment of muscle tone (stiffness syndromes of different etiology), excessive abnormal tension in the course of diseases of the nervous system (spasticity).
PREPARATION FOR THE EXAMINATION
- In the morning of the day of examination, the body under examination should be thoroughly washed with soap and water.
- Do not use creams, ointments or lotions on the skin in the area to be examined.
- In the winter period, it is necessary to warm the examined limb before the examination.