Allergology – the field of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by allergens. Allergens are substances commonly found in the environment, such as pollen, mites, mold, some nutrients, metals, preservatives, animal hair, etc. that can trigger an allergic reaction. It occurs due to an abnormal reaction of the immune system to contact with a foreign substance. The task of an allergologist is, throughout an interview with the patient and applying appropriate tests, to determine the cause of the allergy and implement an appropriate treatment schedule.
Allergy can be trigged by:
- inhalation allergens – substances that we inhale together with the air, e.g. dust and everything that comes into its composition (pollen, plant and animals debris, mold, dust, mites), pollen grains, spores of mold fungi;
- food allergens – substances of vegetable and animal origin found in food products, substances which after consumption cause an allergic reaction, e.g. cow’s milk, eggs, nuts, soybeans, wheat, etc.
- contact allergens – they cause an allergic reaction after contact with the skin, e.g. metals (chromium, nickel), plastics, dyes, fragrances, preservatives;
- medicines – mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketonal), antibiotics, anesthetics (medicines used for anesthesia).
What diseases does the allergologist treat?
- Allergic eye diseases
- Drug allergies
- Bronchial asthma
- Food allergy
- Allergy to insect venom
- Allergic rhinitis
- Atopic dermatitis
- Contact eczema
- Anaphylactic shock